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India from 8th to 15th Century
Section1– EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Answer each question in about 500 words.
Question 1. Write a note on the nature of early medieval Trade and Commerce.
Describe the character and role of various types of Agrarian settlement patterns during early medieval times.
Answer. Trade and commerce in the medieval world developed to such an extent that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day’s travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer goods of the period was set out to tempt the shopper and small retailer. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Markets and fairs were organised by large estate owners, town councils, and some churches and monasteries, who, granted a license to do so by their sovereign, hoped to gain revenue from stall holder fees and boost the local economy as shoppers used peripheral services. International trade had been present since Roman times but improvements in transportation and banking, as well as the economic development of northern Europe, caused a boom from the 9th century CE. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
English wool, for example, was sent in huge quantities to manufacturers in Flanders; the Venetians, thanks to the Crusades, expanded their trade interests to the Byzantine Empire and the Levant, and new financial instruments evolved which allowed even small investors to fund the trade expeditions which criss-crossed Europe by sea and land. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
In villages, towns, and large cities which had been granted the privilege of a license to do so by their monarch, markets were regularly held in public squares (or sometimes triangles), in wide streets or even in purpose-built halls. Markets were also organised just outside many castles and monasteries. Typically held once or twice a week, larger towns might have a daily market which moved around different parts of the city depending on the day or have markets for specific goods like meat, fish, or bread.
Sellers of particular goods, who paid an estate owner, the town, or borough council a fee for the privilege to have a stall, were typically set next to each other in areas so that competition was kept high. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Sellers of meat and bread tended to be men, but women stallholders were often the majority, and they sold such staples as eggs, dairy products, poultry, and ale. There were middlemen and women known as regrators who bought goods from producers and sold them on to the market stallholders or producers might pay a vendor to sell their goods for them. Besides markets, sellers of wares also went knocking on the doors of private homes, and these were known as hucksters. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Trade of common, low-value goods remained a largely local affair because of the costs of transportation. Merchants had to pay tolls at certain points along the road and at key points like bridges or mountain passes so that only luxury goods were worth transportation over long distances. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Moving goods by boat or ship was cheaper and safer than by land but then there were potential losses to bad weather and pirates to consider. Consequently, local markets were supplied by the farmed estates that surrounded them and those who wanted non-everyday items like clothing, cloth, or wine had to be prepared to walk half a day or more to the nearest town. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
In towns, the consumer had, besides markets, the additional option of shops. Tradespeople usually lived above their shop which presented a large window onto the street with a stall projecting out from under a wooden canopy. In cities, shops selling the same type of goods were often clustered together in the same neighborhoods, again to increase competition and make the life of city and guild inspectors easier. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Sometimes location was directly related to the goods on sale such as horse sellers typically being near the city gates so as to tempt the passing traveller or booksellers near a cathedral and its associated schools of learning.
Those trades which involved goods whose quality was absolutely vital such as goldsmiths and armourers were usually located near a town council’s administration buildings where they could be kept a close eye on by regulators. Towns also had banks and money-lenders, many of which were Jews as usury was forbidden to Christians by the Church. As a consequence of this clustering of trades, many streets acquired a name which described the trade most represented in them, names which in many cases still survive today.
Question 2. Discuss the nature of agrarian order in South India with reference to Nadu and Brahmadeya.
Write a note on the revenue administration under the Sultan of Delhi.
Answer. During the Sultanate period the revenue administration was not that well organised. Even the fiscal resources of the state were very limited because the state’s authority extended over the limited territory in North and East of India, and the major parts of Central and Southern India remained beyond their influence. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
But the early Sultans were quite intolerant and tried to squeeze maximum of money from the Hindus. Ala-ud-Din Khilji intentionally and deliberately followed the policy of reducing the Hindus to poverty. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
As agriculture was the main occupation of the people the land revenue was the chief source of state income. But there was no fixed share which the cultivator had to pay to the state. This was determined by the different Sultans and ranged from 1/10 to 1/2. For example Ala-ud-Din Khilji charged 50 per cent of the agricultural produce as state share. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Ala-ud-Din Khilji paid some attention to improve the revenue administration and introduced a number of vital changes. His primary objective in introducing the changes was to collect the maximum revenue for the state so that he could maintain a strong army, which was needed both to combat the Mongol danger and to effect fresh conquests, ln the first instance he ordered the resumption of all landed grants which the nobles held as Inam (reward) or waqf (gifts) and turned them into crown lands.
All the lands were measured and after ascertaining their produce the government’s share was fixed at 53 per cent. The share of the state was rather high and was unprecedented. The agriculturists had, in addition, to pay certain ether taxes and they were virtually reduced to sore straits. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Barni tells us how the Hindus, who had the monopoly of agriculture, were greatly impoverished so much so that there was no sign of gold or silver left in their houses and the wives of muqaddams used to seek jobs in the houses of Mussalmans, work there and receive wages. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Apart from increasing state’s share in land revenue Ala-ud-Din Khilji took drastic steps to eradicate corruption prevailing in the revenue department. He increased the salaries of the Patwaris, but inflicted heavy punishment on them if they resorted to corrupt practices. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
He also ensured that the Patwaris properly assessed land revenue and did net show favour to any one. According to Dr. R. P. Tripathi, ”Ala-ud-Din was apparently the first Muslim ruler whose hands reached as far as Patwaris who were the best source of information in all matters pertaining to the land and its revenue.” EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
The Revenue Administration set by Ala-ud-Din Khilji continued to work under his successors, but it lost much of efficiency. It was Ghias-ud-Din Tughlaq who softened the rigours of Ala-ul-Din’s revenue/ policy and administration. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
He found the state share of 50 per cent of the land revenue rather harsh and inconvenient, fie fixed the state share at one-tenth of the total produce. During his times many barren and ruined lands were brought under cultivation and paid much attention to the welfare of the peasants.
He disallowed the system of farming. According to Prof. S. R. Sharma, “We do not come across such tender consideration for the country until the days of Sher Shah Suri two centuries later.” EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, successor of Ghias-ud-Din also introduced important reforms in the revenue administration. He got prepared a comprehensive register of the income and expenditure of the Sultanate in order to introduce a uniform standard of land revenue and to bring every village under assessment. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Section-2 EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Answer each question in about 250 words.
Question 3. Write a note on the territorial expansion of Delhi Sultanate under the Khaljis.
Give an account of composition of ruling class under the Tughluqs.
Answer. The rulers who ruled substantial parts of the North India between AD1200 to AD1526 were termed as Sultans and the period of their rule as the Delhi Sultanate. These rulers were of Turkish and Afghan origin. They established their rule in India after defeating the Indian ruling dynasties which were mainly Rajputs in northern India. The main ruler who was overthrown by the invading Turk Muhammad Ghori from Delhi was Prithvi Raj Chauhan. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
These Sultans ruled for more than 300 years (from around AD 1200 to AD 1526). The last of the Delhi Sultan, Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by the Mughals under the leadership of Babur in AD1526 who established the Mughal Empire in India. During this period of around three hundred years five different dynasties ruled Delhi. These were the Mamluks (AD 1206–AD 1290) (popularly known as slave dynasty), the Khaljis (AD 1290–AD 1320), the Tughlaqs (AD 1320–AD 1412), the Sayyids (AD 1412–AD 1451) and the Lodis (AD 1451– AD 1526). All these dynasties are collectively referred as the Delhi Sultanate.
The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years (1206–1526). Following the invasion of the subcontinent by the Ghurid dynasty, five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–1290), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). It covered large swathes of territory in modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as well as some parts of southern Nepal.
The foundation of the Sultanate was laid by Ghurid conqueror Muhammad Ghori, who routed the Rajput Confederacy led by Ajmer ruler Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 CE, near Tarain after suffering a reverse against them earlier. As a successor to the Ghurid dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate was originally one among a number of principalities ruled by the Turkic slave-generals of Muhammad Ghori, including Yildiz, Aibak and Qubacha, that had inherited and divided the Ghurid territories amongst themselves.
After a long period of infighting, the Mamluks were overthrown in the Khalji revolution which marked the transfer of power from the Turks to a heterogeneous Indo-Muslim nobility. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Both of the resulting Khalji and Tughlaq dynasties respectively saw a new wave of rapid Muslim conquests deep into South India. The sultanate finally reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent under Muhammad bin Tughluq. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, Hindu kingdoms such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off. In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.
The sultanate is noted for its integration of the Indian subcontinent into a global cosmopolitan culture (as seen concretely in the development of the Hindustani language and Indo-Islamic architecture ), being one of the few powers to repel attacks by the Mongols (from the Chagatai Khanate) and for enthroning one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Bakhtiyar Khalji’s annexations involved large-scale desecration of Hindu and Buddhist temples (contributing to the decline of Buddhism in East India and Bengal), and the destruction of universities and libraries. Mongolian raids on West and Central Asia set the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, intelligentsia, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from those regions into the subcontinent, thereby establishing Islamic culture in India and the rest of the region. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Question 4. Mongols were a constant threat to the Delhi Sultanate.
Write a note on the nature of polities in the Rajputana between 14- 16th Centuries.
Answer. The political structure of the Rajput States was based on the feudal character just like Europe. The king grants land and received grants as tax on behalf of the land. When Zamindar received a king’s grant of land for the service and the land was called his Jagir. The Zamindar who takes care of the King’s land called Jagirdar and they have to maintain a small army, according to the charger so that they can help the king at the time of war. The King’s power lies on the Zamindar and also this army was not regularly trained. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
This system only strengthens the feudal lords i.e. Zamindars and Kings were nominal head to whom they pay tribute. When a foreign power invaded, the king had to seek help from them. Often the Zamindars befriended the enemies and rebelled against their masters. The king had to face rebellion in place of help. Whenever the king was weak or the war of succession was continuing, such events occurred. If the king became weak, the feudal lords declared their independence as they had enough time to strengthen their power. It was the general system.
Small States: The small and disintegrated state was the main features of the early medieval India and this was just because of political disunity among the Rajputs states and as a result they fought among themselves. The most prominent among them were —Chauhan, Rathore, Chandel, Solanki etc. This was the reason that even in the face of foreign aggressions; they did not jointly face them and could not save the nation from defeat. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
War-Ridden: The Rajputs states were running with quarrelsome trait and tendency and hence, for them the wars were just a game. Their love of war never allowed them to sit in peace. It led to mutual wars and the enmity always increased among them, even on small issues.
Lack of Political Farsightedness: The Rajputs were courageous, brave, zealous and patriotic, but they lacked political farsightedness. They believed that war should fit within the realm of ethics which means- fleeing enemy and unarmed enemy must not attack. They could protect the ethical and the glory of Rajputs but they never help other rulers who faced foreign attack. The foreign aggressors took full advantage of these customs. They exploited this moral mentality of the Rajputs and used their own diplomatic skill to conquer them.
Army: The Rajput army consisted of Infantry, Cavalry and Elephantry. The use of elephant in the war sometimes strengthens the army, but in many occasions, these elephants trampled their own army. Hence, this was one the reason of defeat at a time when they had the upper hand. About half of the revenue was spent upon the army because King’s maintain its own army and yet he had to depend upon army of feudal lords.EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Administration: The administration was moving around the norms of feudal system, but the ultimate supreme power was in the hands of the king. He used to assume the titles of `Parambhattarak’, `Parmeshwar’ and `Maharajadhiraja’.
Question 5. Critically evaluate the market control of Alauddin Khalji.
Describe the currency system of the Delhi Sultans.
Answer. Once the Delhi sultanate was firmly established in the 13th century, Indian coinage underwent a major change. The ancient pictorial tradition of coinage gave way to the so-called Islamic type of coins which were sans any pictorial motif. Islamic type of coins had inscription written in Arabic script on both the sides and furnished more information than their ancient counter parts.
It offers Religious and Secular information The Khalji sultan Alauddin Muhammad Shah (1296-1316 CE), discarded the name of Abbasid Caliph from his coins and called himself Yaminul Khilafat (right hand of Caliph). EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
The title was used for the first time by an Indian ruler. He also adopted the title of sikander-us-sani (Second Alexander). This indicates that he was well aware of the importance of Alexander, and wanted to be recognised as the second Alexander. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Qutubuddin Mubarak (1316-1320 CE), the successor of Alauddin Khalji is known to have issued coins in gold, silver, billon and copper. He made a remarkable change in his coin inscription as he has not only discarded the name of Abbasid caliph but declared himself as caliph and called himself khalifullah (caliph of Allah) and Khalifah rabil alemin (caliph of the lord of the world). He also adopted the title of sikander uz zaman.
Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351 CE) introduced token currency in bronze. It weighed around 10 gm. and ruler has asked to accept this bronze tanka at the rate of silver tanka current in the market. An appeal inscribed on the coins reads man ata as-sultan faqad ata rahman (he who obeys king obeys the God) on one side and Muhr shud tanka raij dar raijgar banda –e- umidwar Muhammad Tughluq (sealed as a tanka current in the reign of slave, h Bahlol Lodi (1451-1459 CE), an Afghan established Lodi dynasty in India in 1451 CE and the dynasty continued to rule till 1526 when Babar defeated the Lodi sultan Ibrahim Lodi.
Bahlol made some changes in his coinage. Discarded Gold and silver coins, but continued to issue billon and copper coins. Sher Shah (1538-1540CE) has given the term rupiya to his silver coins, it weighed about 11.5 gms. varies from 11.2 to 11.6 gms. Fractions of these coins are also reported. He re-introduced Devanagari legend, inscribing his name as Sri Ser Sahi on his silver coins. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Sher Shah discarded billon coins and introduced heavy copper coins. It is generally believed that the term paisa was probably given by Sher Shah to his copper coins, weighed at 20gms.Fractions of these coins are also reported.
Question 6. Write a note on the various stages of cloth making with reference to Ginning, Carding and Spinning.
Write a note on the land and income rights during Vijayanagara Empire
Answer. The rise of Vijayanagar Empire was accompanied by the decline of Delhi Sultanate. The empire was ruled by four dynasties. I.e. Sangama dynasty, Saluva dynasty, Tuluva dynasty, and Aravidu dynasty. The rulers of Vijayanagar Empire devoted themselves to the growth of agriculture, and built cities and capitals with magnificent buildings. The different aspects of Society and Economy under Vijaynagara Empire are contained in narratives of foreign travellers, inscriptions, and literature. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Society and Economy under Vijaynagara Empire
The rise of Vijayanagar Empire was accompanied by the decline of Delhi Sultanate. The empire was ruled by four dynasties. I.e. Sangama dynasty, Saluva dynasty, Tuluva dynasty, and Aravidu dynasty. The rulers of Vijayanagar Empire devoted themselves to the growth of agriculture, and built cities and capitals with magnificent buildings. The different aspects of Society and Economy under Vijaynagara Empire are contained in narratives of foreign travellers, inscriptions, and literature. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Society and Economy under the Vijaynagara Empire
1. Allasani Peddana, in his Manucharitam, mentions the four castes that existed in the Vijayanagar society.
- Viprulu or Brahmins followed the traditional profession of teachers and priests. They sometimes also performed the duties of soldiers and administrators. This is confirmed from the narration of Domingo Paes.
- Rajulu or Rachavaru was generally associated with the ruling dynasty. The rulers as well as generals were actually Shudras, but called rachavaru on account of their position. As in the case of other parts of South India, the Kshatriya Varna seems to be absent here.
- Matikaratalu or Vaishyas were the same as merchants who carried on trade and commerce. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
- Nalavajativaru or Sudras were mainly agriculturists, but some of them carried on several other professions. They were not segregated, although considered inferior.
- The practice of dancing girls attached to temples was also in vogue. From the account of Paes, we learn that Devadasis held a highly respectable position in society, and were given land grants, maid-servants, etc.
- The plight of widows was pitiable, but they could remarry.
- The state encouraged widow remarriage by not levying any tax on It.
- The prevalence of Sati or Sahagamana in the Vijayanagar Empire is proved both from inscriptions and foreign accounts of the period.
- Chess: It was a game promoted by the state and players were rewarded.
- Untouchability: It existed and various classes such as Kambalattars, Dambars, Jogis, and Kambalattars were treated as untouchables.
- Slavery: It was quite common and Nicolo de Conti says that those who failed to repay debts became the property of the creditor. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Section 3 EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Answer in about 100 words each.
Question 7. Write short notes on any two of the following:
i) Arch and dome
Answer. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are also a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may cover an oculus and may itself have another dome. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Domes have a long architectural lineage that extends back into prehistory and they have been constructed from mud, snow, stone, wood, brick, concrete, metal, glass, and plastic over the centuries. The symbolism associated with domes includes mortuary, celestial, and governmental traditions that have likewise developed over time. Domes have been found from early Mesopotamia, which may explain the form’s spread. They are found in Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, and Chinese architecture in the Ancient world, as well as among a number of contemporary indigenous building traditions.
Dome structures were popular in Byzantine and medieval Islamic architecture, and there are numerous examples from Western Europe in the Middle Ages. The Renaissance architectural style spread from Italy in the Early modern period. Advancements in mathematics, materials, and production techniques since that time resulted in new dome types. The domes of the modern world can be found over religious buildings, legislative chambers, sports stadiums, and a variety of functional structures. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
An arch is a curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it.
Arches may be synonymous with vaults, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof. Arches appeared as early as the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamian brick architecture, and their systematic use started with the ancient Romans, who were the first to apply the technique to a wide range of structures. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
An iqta and occasionally iqtaʿa was an Islamic practice of tax farming that became common in Muslim Asia during the Buyid dynasty. Iqta has been defined in Nizamal-Mulk’s Siyasatnama. Administrators of an Iqta were known as muqti or wali. They collected land revenue and looked after general administration. Muqtiʿs had no right to interfere with the personal life of a paying person if the person stayed on the muqtiʿ’s land. They were expected to send the collected revenue (after deducting collection and administration charges) to the central treasury.
Such an amount to be sent was called Fawazil. Theoretically, iqtas were not hereditary by law and had to be confirmed by a higher authority like a sultan or king. However, it was made hereditary by Firoz Tughlaq. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Individual iqtaʿ holders in Middle Eastern societies had little incentive to provide public goods to the localities assigned to them. The overarching theme was state power where the iqtaʿ was revocable and uninheritable. Though not an investment in a particular holding of land, the iqtaʿ, as a fiscal device, gave soldiers a vested interest in the regime. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Iqtadar (person holding iqta) and the Sultan had a mutually dependent relationship. There could be three types of Iqtadars. First, those who were appointed by the Sultan in fully conquered territories. Second, who were appointed in partially conquered territories. These Iqtadars had to win the territories again, and hence the Sultan’s control over them was relatively weaker. Third kind of Iqtadars were virtually independent, as they were appointed in unconquered territories. EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23