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Solved Assignment BANS 184
Solved Assignment BANS 184

Also Read IGNOU Solved BPCS 134 Assigment

BANS 184: Public Health And Epidemiology

Course Code BANS 184

Assignment Code: BANS 184/ASST/TMA/July 2022 and January 2023

Total Marks 100

Assignment – I Solved Assignment BANS 184 Assignment – I

Solved Assignment BANS 184
Solved Assignment BANS 184

Question a. What is Epidemiology? Briefly examine various categories of observational studies.

Answer: Epidemiology – Solved Assignment BANS 184

Epidemiology is the method used to find the causes of health outcomes and diseases in populations. In epidemiology, the patient is the community and individuals are viewed collectively. By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic and data driven) of the distribution {frequency, pattern} and determinants {causes, risk factors} of health-related states and events in specified populations {neighborhood, school, city, state, global}. It is also the application of this study to the control of health problems.

Observational Studies: Solved Assignment BANS 184

In observational studies, frequency and distribution of diseases of deaths are reported by time (year/month/week/day/hour/season), place (country/urban-rural/Institutions/old age homes/school) and demographic characteristics.

Categories of Observational Studies : Solved Assignment BANS 184

Observational studies are categories into two type, (I) Descriptive and (II) Analytical studies. In descriptive studies, only description about the disease is made whereas in analytical studies relationship of variable with disease is described.

Descriptive Studies:

Descriptive studies are again two types, case reports and case series

  1. Case Reports: In case reports, cases with unusual symptoms, signs and characteristics or death observed during clinical practice are reported by the clinician’s presentation which are helpful to define new clinical disease/entry. These case reports are useful in clinical practice, formulating hypothesis and explore in epidemiological studies. Example: coagulopathy in patient with renal failure. Solved Assignment BANS 184
  2. Case Series: when new clinical entitles/new cases or death with common characteristics, symptoms or signs are compiled by single or group of clinicians they can be called case series. They are useful for definition of new cases, to understand the spectrum of symptoms and signs, when followed till the death of patients which are useful to investigate the natural history of disease.

Analytical Studies

Analytical Studies are of four types:

  • Ecological Studies: In this types of studies, association between disease/Outcome frequency and the level of exposure in group of within or between population is studied. Population not the individual is the unit in this kind of study. Grouping can be done based on the place (Birthplace/Residence/Factory/School), socio-economics status, times or by mixing place and time. Ecological studies are used for generation of hypothesis. Solved Assignment BANS 184
  • Case-Control Studies: These studies investigate the etiology of disease, suitable for studying rare and longer duration of (chronic) diseases, cost effective, require less number of subjects, easy to perform, no risk is done to subjects, multiple risk factor can be studied at the same time, no dropout of subjects is observed, has minimal ethical problems and can be completed within short duration. The unit of study is individual.
  • Cross – Sectional Studies: In these studies, both exposure and outcome (disease) are investigated at the same time. No temporal associations between exposure (risk factors) and outcome can be explained. The unit of the study is individual. These studies are useful for investigating chronic disease and fixed exposures such age, gender, ethnicity and genotype, to study multiple risk factors simultaneously.
  • Cohort Studies: These studies are called incidence/longitudinal studies. Cohort means group of population, Group can be formed based on the date of birth (birth cohort), date of marriage (marriage cohort), decade (decade cohort) occupation (doctors/lawyers/Engineers/Teachers), city population (Example: Delhi/Mumbai) etc. Subject of cohorts have common characteristics/experience/conditions. A group is assigned for the study, and exposed and non-exposed cohorts within the same group are identified and followed for particular period

Question B. Briefly discuss the core disciplines of Public Health.

Answer: Core disciplines of Public Health:

The goal of public health is the biological, physical and mental well-being of all members of society. To achieve this broad challenging goal, public health professional need to have a wide range of disciplinary understanding. Today, public health involves the applications of many different disciplines: Biology, Psychology, Computer science, Sociology, Medicine, Economics, Geography, Anthropology, Public Policy/ Health Policy, Mathematics, Engineering, Business, Education.

This Multi/interdiscriplinary/understanding is required to anticipate, identify and prevent problems, identify strategies to resolve these problems, implement these strategies, and finally evaluate their effectiveness. The details of core disciplines of Public Health are given below: Solved Assignment BANS 184

  1. Epidemiology: It is the study of frequency, distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Epidemiologists examine the 5 Ws: diagnosis or health event (What), person (Who), place (Where), time (When) and causes, risk factors, and models of transmission (Why/How).
  2. Nutrition: It is the science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease. Nutrition science also includes the study of behavior and social factors related to food choices.
  3. Environmental Helath: This core discipline of public health draws strongly on the natural science. Environmental health scientist monitor the levels of contaminants in the environment and seek to understand the impact of environmental factors on health.
  4. Health Education : Health education is a social science that draws from the biological environmental, psychological, physical and medical sciences to promote health and prevent disease, disability and premature death through education – driven voluntary behavior change activation. Health education is any combination of learning experience designed to help individuals and communitites improve their health, by increasing their knowledge or influencing their attitudes.
Solved Assignment BANS 184
Solved Assignment BANS 184

Assignment – II Solved Assignment BANS 184 Assignment – I

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