IGNOU Solved Assignment BPSC 134 2022-23
Assignment – I Solved Assignment BPSC 134
BPSC 134 INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Q 1 What do you understand by Critical Perspectives? Elucidate.
Ans:Critical Perspectives: -Taking a critical perspective involves adopting a viewpoint that asks questions about the rationale and legitimacy of something.
The idea behind critical thinking is to remove normal biases from a point of view to determine whether a conclusion is the most valid one. To do this, a subject must be thoroughly analyzed.
According to the Foundation for Critical Thinking, a critical approach is both “self-guided” and “self disciplined.”
Critical perspectives can be developed about virtually any subject, including art, economics, history, science and literature.
Most essays that involve student research and analysis about a subject require students to present a critical perspective. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
The word “critical” is derived from the Greek “to judge.” The word “perspective” is from the Latin word for “optical.”
Critical perspectives are the basis for modern philosophy. Greek philosophers laid the foundations of developing critical perspectives thousands of years ago.
Over time, however, the field of philosophy has built upon the basic process for critical thinking. The postmodern field of critical thinking is based largely on developments in the field since the latter half of the 20th century.
There are now tests, classes and literature created specifically to help people develop their skills of critical analysis, and the Foundation for Critical Thinking even offers statistics on critical thinking research.
It’s about looking a various sides or perspectives, instead of just one’s own, without judgement, but with the intent to gain and better and deeper understanding of something.
Sometimes it’s hard to do, but it’s well worth the effort. A simple example, and one I’m still kind of ashamed.
Someone I knew adopted a baby. She had 2 kids of her own and I was not aware that after they came she had struggled to get pregnant again. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Thinking of my own 6 pregnancies and c-sections only, I made some stupid comment about her at least not having to go through 9 months of pregnancy.
Her response, even kind response was a smile and “we’ve been waiting for 3 years for this baby.” 3 years of hungering for a child had to be much harder than my pretty easy pregnancies of 9 months.
This example really relates to empathy and better relationships. I apologized to her and she was really sweet about it.
But perspective taking is also related to determining validity and truth. When we hear different perspectives, with an open mind, regarding, for example a political issue – we can gain greater understanding and can either determine we can trust what we believe and support it more strongly, or determine that maybe we didn’t have the whole picture and need to change or even adjust what we thought before.
The critical perspective aims at empowerment and emancipation. It reinterprets the relationship between researcher and participants as one of collaboration, where participants define research questions that matter to them and where social action is the desired goal.
Examples of critical research include feminist, radical educational, and participatory action research. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Adopting the critical perspective would require that scholars in professional communication rethink their choices of research questions and sites, their views of the ownership of research results, and the types of funding they seek for research initiatives. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 2. What are the major concepts in dependency theory?
Ans: Major concepts in dependency theory:
Following are the major concepts in dependency theory:
Dependency as the result of a Historical Process:-Dependency is the result of a specific historical process.
Through centuries of colonialism and domination, the colonial and dominant capitalist powers restructured the socio-economic institutions of the colonies and underdeveloped regions; and integrated the economies of these countries and regions as resource suppliers into the world economy in accordance with the requirement of capitalism.
As a result, the colonies and other underdeveloped regions became the suppliers of primary commodities and the markets for the finished goods manufactured by the colonial and dominant capitalist economies.
Dependency theorists argue that even after the end of formal colonialism, the structure of the world economy remains without any change. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Core, Periphery, Semi-Periphery, and Enclave Economy:- Dependency theorists categorize the economies into the two broad categories, i.e., the core and the periphery.
The core economies are the developed countries in the global north (e.g. in Europe, the USA, and Japan) characterized by advanced technology and industries, supported by powerful state governments, a strong middle class (bourgeoisie) and a large working class (proletariat).
In addition to the core, terms such as the ‘centre’ and ‘metropolitan’ are also used to denote the industrially developed countries in the global north.
Dependency Theory as a Critic of Liberal Theories:-Liberal thinkers of economic development such as Adam Smith (1723-1790), believed that economic activity should be spontaneous and freed from all forms of regulations.
Smith argued that if economic activities were allowed to operate without regulations, then it would operate in accordance with its own rules and bring immense progress in society.
In tune with Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say (1767- 1830) supported laissez-faire (this French term refers to the policy, which allows free functioning of the economy) and held that free functioning of the capitalist economy without government intervention would naturally bring immense prosperity and full employment in society.
Critique of Modernization Theory:-Modernization theory is a perspective that the less developed countries can achieve development through accelerating economic growth and replacing the traditional values and socio-political and economic systems with that of the developed countries. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Modernization theory equates development with mass industrialization, a higher level of economic growth, and the liberal democratic values.
Development of Underdevelopment:-‘Development of underdevelopment’ is a concept proposed by Andre Gunder Frank to denote the deteriorating economic condition of the peripheral states as the result of their dependency on the core.
According to Frank, underdevelopment is a condition fundamentally different from undeveloped.Undeveloped is a condition of a region, in which its resources are not being utilized.
For instance, Asia, Americas, and Africa during the pre-colonial period were undeveloped. Their land and natural resources were not utilized on a scale consistent with their potential.
Neoliberal Globalization Entrenching the Dependency:- Most of the dependency theorists hold that the current phase of globalization is ‘neoliberal globalization
dominated by transnational corporations (TNCs)’.
As a result, the production of manufacturing goods concentrates in the hands of a few TNCs, which makes an oligopoly market at the global level.
According to the dependency theorists, this will slow down production and speed up income polarization.
Neoliberal globalization also witnesses increasing dependency of the peripheral states on the core and international financial institutions for capital.
Assignment – II – Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 1 Describe the major assumptions of Feminism.
Ans: Major assumptions of Feminism:-The rational, autonomous person is seen as being isolated, with needs and interests separate from, and even in opposition to those of every other individual. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
By placing such a premium on human liberty and the individual’s rights, the liberals seem to believe that there is no common answer to the fundamental questions of political philosophy
The essential unity of the self through space and time: how is self-identity possible, they ask, given that psychology has enabled us to understand that the workings of the unconscious mind are often inaccessible to us?
ideological Assumptions behind Sexual Division of Labour: –
The fact is that it is not a “natural” biological difference that lies behind the sexual division of labour, but curtain ideological assumptions.
So on the one hand, women are supposed to be physically weak and unlit for heavy manual labour but both in the home and outside, they do the heaviest of work – carrying heavy loads of water and firewood, grinding corn, transplanting paddy, carrying head-loads in mining and construction work.
But at the same time, when the manual work that women do is mechanized, making it both lighter and better-paid, then it is men who receive training to use the new machinery, and women are edged out.
This happens not only in factories. but even with work that was traditionally done by women within the community; for example, when electrically operated flour mills replace hand-pounding of grain, or machine-made nylon fishing nets replace the nets traditionally hand-made by women, Solved Assignment BPSC 134
it is men who are trained to take over these jobs, and women are forced to move into even lower-paid and Inure arduous manual work.
Q 2 Explain the concept of Digital Globalisation.
Ans:Digital Globalisation:-Digital globalization is a new form of globalization. It brings about relevant changes regarding how business is conducted across borders, the flow of economic benefits, and broadening participation.
The growth of data and information related to digital globalization determines that global economic, financial, and social connections increase through digital platforms.
Covid-19 is causing a shock to the global economy that is proving to be both faster and more severe than the 2008 global financial crisis.
If the current crisis is pushing towards deglobalization, at the same time, Covid-19 represents a challenge for digital globalization and the digital transformation of economies.
This research contribution examines the process towards digital globalization that is characterizing the world economy, its impact on businesses, consumers, and governments.
It also discusses the challenge that the crisis caused by the corona virus pandemic is posing to the globalization and digital transformation of economies.
Globalization is the term used to refer to the integration of goods, services, and culture among the nations of the world. Globalization is not necessarily a new phenomenon; in many ways, we have been experiencing globalization since the days of European colonization. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Further advances in telecommunication and transportation technologies accelerated globalization. The advent of the the worldwide Internet has made all nations next-door neighbors.
The Internet is truly a worldwide phenomenon. As of 2012, the Internet was being used in over 150 countries by a staggering 2.4 billion people worldwide, and growing.
From its initial beginnings in the United States in the 1970s to the development of the World Wide Web in the 1990s to the social networks and e-commerce of today, the Internet has continued to increase the integration between countries, making globalization a fact of life for citizens all over the world. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 3 Discuss the meaning and relevance of the Cold War.
Ans:Meaning of the Cold War:-A cold war is a state of conflict between two nations that does not involve direct military action. The conflict is primarily pursued through economic and political actions, including propaganda, espionage and proxy wars, where countries at war rely on others to fight their battles.
The term cold war was rarely used before 1945, and some credit 14th century Spaniard Don Juan Manuel for first using it when referencing the conflict between Christianity and Islam.
However, critics say he used the word for tepid in Spanish, claiming the term actually originated in a mistranslation of his work in the 19th century.
George Orwell used the term in an essay at the end of World War II. In his work “You and the Atomic Bomb”, published October 19, 1945, Orwell contemplated a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear war, warning of a “peace that is no peace”, which he called a permanent “cold war”. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Relevance of the Cold War:
The Cold War divided Europe and the world in two opposing spheres of influence for four and a half decades.
The emergence of the United States as a dominant international actor following the Second World War was shaped by the rivalry with the Soviet Union, which, in turn, defined its new global posture on the basis of the competition with America.
Cold War necessities came to dictate both superpowers’ foreign and defence policies for decades.
While historians agree on assessing the Cold War as an important chapter in the turbulent history of the twentieth century, far less consensus exists among analysts on the contemporary relevance of the bipolar conflict.
In other words, is the Cold War still relevant today, or was it just a passing – albeit important – historical phase? Is there, or not, a legacy of the Cold War that continues to define the international system? Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Assignment – III Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 1 Truman Doctrine
Ans:Truman Doctrine: The American declaration of cold war came about on March 12, 1947, when President Harry Truman went before a joint session of Congress to deliver a truly epochal speech in American history.
President Truman was provoked by the British who shocked Washington by declaring that an economically burdened Britain could no longer sustain a pro-western government in Greece.
Great Britain further warned that once they withdrew from Greece, communist guerrillas there would receive help from their communist patrons in the Soviet Union which would probably seize control of Greece. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Greece would then gravitate within the Soviet orbit; the position of neighbouring Turkey which was already unstable would become untenable, leading to the strategically vital eastern Mediterranean falling into Soviet hands with dangerous consequences for the western world. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 2 Major assumptions of constructivism
Ans:Major assumptions of constructivism: -Following are the major assumptions of constructivism: Solved Assignment BPSC 134
i.All knowledge is constructed and all learning is a process of that construction (semiosis).
ii. Individuals construct knowledge as part of a community but each has his/her own invisible world view that he/she believes is the same as everyone else’s.
This view remains invisible until it is challenged or confronted by another world view. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
iii. Knowledge is content dependent so it is important to situate learning in an authentic, relevant and realistic contexts. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
iv. All human learning is constructed in a context where some type of mediational means, tools and/or signs, are used.
Members of a culture may create a tool or sign to solve a problem, but the development of this tool or sign changes their participation within the culture.
Q 3 Détente
Ans:Détente: Détente (a French word meaning release from tension) is the name given to a period of improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began tentatively in 1971 and took decisive form when President Richard M. Nixon visited the secretary-general of the Soviet Communist party, Leonid I. Brezhnev, in Moscow, May 1972. Both countries stood to gain if trade could be increased and the danger of nuclear warfare reduced. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
In addition, Nixon-a candidate for reelection-was under fire at home from those demanding social change, racial equality, and an end to the Vietnam War.
The trip to Russia, like his historic trip to China a few months earlier, permitted him to keep public attention focused on his foreign policy achievements rather than his domestic problems. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Nixon’s trip to China had also heightened the Soviets’ interest in détente; given the growing antagonism between Russia and China, Brezhnev had no wish to see his most potent rivals close ranks against him. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 4 Perestroika
Ans: Perestroika: Perestroika refers to a series of political and economic reforms meant to kick-start the stagnant 1980s economy of the Soviet Union.
Its architect, President Mikhail Gorbachev, would oversee the most fundamental changes to his nation’s economic engine and political structure since the Russian Revolution. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
But the suddenness of these reforms, coupled with growing instability both inside and out of the Soviet Union, would contribute to the collapse of the U.S.S.R. in 1991.
Perestroika program instituted in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s to restructure Soviet economic and political policy. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Seeking to bring the Soviet Union up to economic par with capitalist countries such as Germany, Japan, and the United States, Gorbachev decentralized economic controls and encouraging enterprises to become self-financing.
The economic bureaucracy, fearing the loss of its power and privileges, obstructed much of his program, however. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Gorbachev also proposed reducing the direct involvement of the Communist Party leadership in the country’s governance and increasing the local governments’ authority. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
Q 5 Ethnicity
Ans: Ethnicity:-Ethnicity refers to the identification of a group based on a perceived cultural distinctiveness that makes the group into a “people.” Solved Assignment BPSC 134
This distinctiveness is believed to be expressed in language, music, values, art, styles, literature, family life, religion, ritual, food, naming, public life, and material culture. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
This cultural comprehensiveness-a unique set of cultural characteristics perceived as expressing themselves in commonly unique ways across the sociocultural life of a population-characterizes the concept of ethnicity.
It revolves around not just a “population,” a numerical entity, but a “people,” a comprehensively unique cultural entity. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
The concept of ethnicity contrasts with that of race, which refers to the perceived unique common physical and biogenetic characteristics of a population. Solved Assignment BPSC 134
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