Here we are share with you Solved Assignment MPC 01 for the year of 2022-23

Cognitive Psychology, Learning and Memory (MPC – 001) Solved Assignment
Course Code: MPC – 001
Assignment Code: MPC – 001/ASST/TMA/2022-23

NOTE: All Questions are compulsory

SECTION – A Solved Assignment MPC 01

Solved Assignment MPC 01

Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks

Question 1. Discuss the structure and functions of language.

Phonology is the study of language sounds. Every spoken language ls made up of sounds.
There are a lot of possible sounds that we can produce, but each language only uses some of these sounds. In order to standardize the study of these sounds, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IP A) was created. This shows all the possible sounds in languages throughout the world.


Morphology is the study of meaningful sound sequences. This includes things like the tense of
verbs (like the difference between “typing” and “typed”), plurals (like “cat” and “cats”), and
compound words (like “lighthouse”). Solved Assignment MPC 01

Phonemes do not usually cany meaning-they are just sounds. But if you put phonemes together, you can create a morpheme. Morphemes are the smallest units that are meaningful.


Syntax is the study of how morphemes are arranged into sentences. For example, in English, you could say, “Jerry walked the dog.” It wouldn’t make sense to say, “Walked dog Jerry the.” There is a certain arrangement of the words making up the sentence. English speakers expect to have the subject first, then the verb, and then the object (this fo1m is called SVO). So, there is a specific word order in English that makes sense


Informational Function of Language

The most obvious function of language is info1mative. It is also, in tum, is known as referential.
We came across this function more than other functions in the text. This function of language is applied to conveying a message or information about something in a direct or an indirect way. Solved Assignment MPC 01


The profit level is 8% down this month.
The intelligence agency of Pakistan ISI, Inter-Service Intelligence, is ranked No. I among the
agencies of the World in 2017. Solved Assignment MPC 01

Expressive Function of Language
The function of a language that indicates emotions, feelings, desires and moods etc. is known as an expressive function. TI1is a type of language that gives us info1mation about the moods or emotions of the subject. This gives us inf01mation about the tone of the sender directly.


Today I am feeling very happy.
He is very gloomy over the death of his father.
She is very excited about her success in the examination.

Directive Function of Language

This type of function is used to drag the attention of others. Its purpose is to prompt a reaction
from them. This language is used to command an order or to ask questions. This function of
language uses interrogative tone. Solved Assignment MPC 01

Take this camera to John and say thanks.
Have you completed your assignment?
Bring me a cup of tea.

Phatic Function of Language

This type of function is exe1ted to sta1t or stop a discussion. As well as this function of language is applied to check the connection between a receiver and the sender. Solved Assignment MPC 01


Good morning, have a nice day.
Good night, sweet dreams.
Hello, how are you?

Poetic Function of Language

It is also known as an aesthetic function of language. It is used to concentrate on the message
itself, using orato1ical aspects to illuminate its beauty. These are not only used in text bit also
common in use in the form of quotes and sayings. Solved Assignment MPC 01

The saying “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise”. Solved Assignment MPC 01

Meta-linguistic Function of Language

This is the last function which desc1ibes the language itself. This language includes the
defination or meanings of words and also the inte1pretation of the language. Solved Assignment MPC 01

In Urdu, language princess is called Shehzadi.
A language is a way of communication between people

Question 2. Critically discuss Das, Naglieri and Kirby’s PASS theory.

ANS: The Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) theory
of intelligence, was developed by Das, Naglie1y and Kirby (1994). PASS theory is useful to
link PASS processes to the brain. The linking of PASS processes to brain becomes helpful, for
example, in understanding the loss of sequential and planning functions due to aging in a study of individuals with Down’s Syndrome. The PASS theory provides the theoretical framework for a measurement instrument called the Das-Naglieri.

The Theories of Spearman are based on isolating factors after administering several intelligence tests over a large sample of subjects. They did not take into account how an input. This theory has taken its inspiration from the Pioneering neuropsychological researches of Alexander Luria. Luria described human cognitive processes within the framework of three functional units.

The function of the first unit is cortical arousal and attention, the second unit codes information using simultaneous and successive processes and the third unit provides for planning, self-monitoring, and structurative of cognitive activities. There are four main components of the theory, viz, Planning, Attention-Arousal, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) processing systems.

Planning is a frontal lobe function. It is, more specifically, associated with the prefrontal cortex
and one of the main abilities that distinguishes humans from other primates.

The prefrontal cortex plays a central role in forming goals and objectives and then in devising
plans of action required to attain these goals. It selects the cognitive skills required to implement the plans, coordinates these skills, and applies them in a correct order. Finally, the prefrontal cortex is responsible for evaluating our actions as success or failure relative to our intentions.

Planning, therefore, helps us achieve through the selection or development of plans or strategies needed to complete tasks for which a solution is needed and is critical to all activities were the child or adult has to determine how to solve a problem. This includes generation, evaluation, and execution of a plan as well as self-monitoring and impulse control.

Thus, Planning allows for the solution of problems, control of attention, simultaneous, and
successive processes, as well as selective utilization of knowledge and skills.

Attention is a mental process that is closely related to the orienting response. The base of the
brain allows the organism to direct focused selective attention toward a stimulus over time and
resist loss of attention to other stimuli. The longer attention is required the more the activity can be one.

that demands vigilance. Attention is controlled by intentions and goals and involves knowledge and skills as well as the other PASS processes.

Next, Knowledge base is closely associated with the PASS model and all processes are found
within this framework. Knowledge base of the PASS model represents all information obtained
form the cultural and social background and throws light on various parts of behavior. Simultaneous Processing is essential for organization of information into groups or a coherent

The paiieto-occipital-temporal brain regions provide a c1itical ability to see patterns as inteITelated
elements. Planning processes provide for the programming, regulation and ve1ification of
behaviour and ai·e responsible for behaviors, such as asking questions, problem solving, and the
capacity for self-monitoring.
Successive Processing is involved with the use of stimuli atTanged in a specific serial order.
Whenever infonnation must be remembered or completed in a specific order successive processing
will be involved. Impo1tantly, however, the info1mation must not be able to be organized into a
pattern (like the number 9933811 organized into 99-33-8-11) but instead each element can only
be related to those that precede it.
The PASS theory is ai1 alternative to approaches to intelligence that have traditionally included
verbal, nonverbal, and quantitative tests. Not only does this the01y expand the view of what
“abilities” should be measured, but it also puts emphasis on basic psychological processes and
precludes verbal achievement like tests such as vocabnlaty.
Additionally, the PASS theory is an alternative to the anachronistic notion of general intelligence.
Instead, the functions of the brain are considered the building blocks of ability conceptualized
within a cognitive processing framework. While the theory may have its roots m neuro
psychology, its brai1ches are spread over developmental and educational psychology.
Tims PASS themy of cognitive processing, with its links to developmental and neuro-psychology,
provides an advantage in explanat01y power over the notion of general intelligence.
Salient features of pass theory:

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